Lathe machine is one of the most common and versatile machines used in industries. It can perform various operations such as grooving, turning, knurling, tapping, facing on the workpiece. The main function of the lathe machine is to rotate the workpiece on a spindle against the tool at a certain speed to cut away excess material and produce a desired shape and size for the work. Together with the use of cutting tools and drill bits in different diameters can produce a symmetrical object. Lathe machine is composed of different parts in which each part plays an important role and position in machining the workpiece during the operation. In this article, we will introduce the functions of lathe machine parts and also cover the available operation, functions of the lathe machine.
There are various operations that can be performed by the lathe machine. The Facing operation is the first operation to be done on the workpiece. It helps to produce a flat surface at the end of the workpiece. In a Turning operation, it removes the material from the surface of the workpiece or reduces the diameter of the workpiece and then produces a smooth finishing surface. Grooving operation is a process of creating a slot or narrow cavity of a certain depth on the workpiece. Thread cutting is used for producing threads on the surfaces of the workpiece. Knurling operation is to form a pattern of straight, crossed lines on the surface of the workpiece by using tools to press against the workpiece. Lathe machine can also perform drilling operation which is creating holes in the workpiece. Many other operations and functions of the lathe machine, such as Reaming, Trepanning, Boring Operation, Sport Facing, Honing, Counterboring, Countersinking are available with the use of lathe machine.
There are two types of lathe machines which are horizontal lathe and vertical lathe. Horizontal lathe machine is less expensive and it is more suitable for working on small workpieces. Whereas the vertical lather is more expensive but it allows us to work with a bigger workpiece. When choosing the right lathe machine, we will need to consider the business purpose and manufacturing requirements. It is also important to make sure that the lathe machine has a quality clamp which is used to stabilize the workpiece while running the operation. If the clamp is not quality and unable to hold the workpiece steady which may cause inaccuracy measurement on the final object. We also need to consider the machine’s tolerance which helps to make sure that we will not have to perform multiple finishing operations in order to complete an object.
Here we will introduce some important parts of the Lathe Machine.
1.Bed. The bed is also known as the tray, It is the main part of the lathe machine and the main guiding part for accurate machining works. The bed must be rigid enough to withstand the forces created from the operation process and able to handle the weight of the workpiece. All the parts of the lathe machine are mounted on it such as the tailstock, headstock, carriage, and other parts. High-grade special cast iron is normally used as the material of the bed as it is rigid and has high damping quality which able to absorb the vibrations produced during the machining.
2.Headstock is installed on the left side of the lathe machine. It acts as a housing to keep some parts of the machine such as the main spindle, chuck, gear train, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers. These transmission systems are used together to monitor and change the speed of the spindle.
3.Chuck: This is a device that bolted on the spindle of the headstock and used to hold the workpiece at one end. It rotates with the spindle and so the workpiece. There are generally using two types of chunks which are three-jaw and four-jaw chuck. The three-jaw chuck (self-centering) is designed to move simultaneously whereas the four-jaw chuck is moving independently.
4.Main Spindle is a hollow shaft and the chunk is mounted on it. This is used to hold and rotate the chuck and its hollow design allows long bars to pass through.
5.Tailstock is movable and located on the right side of the lathe. The two main purposes of the tailstock are to provide support to the workpiece from the right end when it is being machined and to hold tools for performing several operations such as tapping, drilling, etc. It is good for centering the job when a long work is tied on the chuck and provide support to damp the vibration.
6.Carriage is located in between the headstock and tailstock. It can be moved manually or with power feed in the outer ways. The carriage consists of 5 main parts which are the Saddle, Apron, Cross slide, Tool post, and compound rest. It provides three movements to the tools which are longitudinal feed, cross feed, and angular feed. Five main parts in the carriage including
a) Saddle: Located at the top portion of the carriage.
b) Apron: Located at the front portion of the carriage. It includes all the mechanisms of moving and controlling the carriage.
c) Cross slide: To provide cutting motion of the tool. It can be operated manually or by the cross feed equipment.
d) Tool post: It is mounted at the top of the carriage and possesses a T-slot used for holding various tools.
e) Compound rest: It is mounted to the cross slide and used to support the tool post or cutting tools in multiple positions for taper turning and other operations.
7.Lead Screw is located below the feed rod and used to move the carriage longitudinally during thread cutting operation.
8.Feed Rod is used to moving the carriage horizontally from left to right and vice versa. The movement of the feed rood is mandatory during the turning operation.
9.Hand Wheel is operated manually by hand to move the carriage, cross slide, tailstock, and other parts that equipped with the handwheel.
10.Chip Pan is created to collect the chips and unwanted material that produce during the lathe operation. It is located at the bottom of the lathe machine.
Lathe machine is popular to be used in shaping and changing the metal components for various applications and industries. MecHero Malaysia supplies different types of lathe machines and provides lathe services to meet your industrial requirements. You can always contact us at +6011-7000 7687 or email us at email@example.com for the inquiry about the lathe machine or lathe services in Malaysia. We also supply steel material, hardware, or mechanical components. Tell us your requirements now and we can advise you accordingly.
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