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Pipe Fittings for Plumbing System

Updated: Oct 21, 2020

Piping fittings are the general term for parts and components that have connection, control, change direction, steering, and sealing functions in the pipeline system. There are many types of pipe fittings, classified according to use, connection, material, and processing method.

The following introduces some commonly used fittings and their functions.

1. Ball valve

The threaded ball valve is used to control the flow of water and gas. The ball valve is mainly used to cut off, distribute and regulate the flow direction of the medium in the pipeline. The ball valve has inside threaded, and this kind of threaded connection allows the ball valve and pipe to connect firmly and tightly. It can be removed or installed by rotating the threaded ball valve.

2. Coupling

Coupling is a kind of parts connecting pipes of the same diameter, mainly used in water treatment, high-rise stainless steel water supply, air conditioning systems, and other mechanical pipe connection systems. Coupling adopts a flat design, and the fitting gap between the joint key shoulder and the pipe is used to meet the requirements of flexibility. Under the premise of ensuring the strength, coupling does not completely clamp the pipe, allowing partial axial and radial displacement.

3. Cross

Cross is a four-way pipe fitting, the function is the same as the tee. It is used to increase the pipe branch. However, the cross has one more outlet than the tee. It consists of one inlet and three outlets, which is where the four pipes converge. According to the size and material of the pipe, it is also made of different sizes and materials. Inside has a threaded design (female thread) so that it can be firmly connected to the pipe.

4. Elbow

Elbow is a kind of pipe used to change the flow’s direction of the pipeline. According to the angle, the most commonly used ones are 45°, 90°, and 180°. The material of the elbow includes cast iron, stainless steel, alloy steel, malleable cast iron, carbon steel, non-ferrous metals, and plastics

5. Flange

Flanges are used to connect two pipes, pipe fittings, or other accessories, and are used to connect the ends of the pipes. They are fastened together with bolts to complete the connection. There are holes in the flanges, and bolts connect the two flanges tightly. Mainly used to connect valves, pipes, pumps, etc. to become a complete piping system. According to different uses, flanges are mainly divided into two types: threaded flanges and welded flanges. Threaded pipe flanges can be used for pipes with lower pressure and smaller diameters; however, welded flanges are required for high pressure or low pressure with larger diameters.

6. Pipe Cap

Pipe caps are usually used to protect the ends of pipes and other accessories, so the shape of the cap can be designed according to the shape of the pipe. The main purpose of the pipe cap is similar in function to the pipe plug that can be used to block the water flow. Some caps have threads inside (female threaded), and some are seamless. However, it can be made of different materials, such as steel, iron, PVC, etc.

7. Pipe Clamp

A pipe clamp is a kind of fastener, mainly used for clamping and fixing pipes and hoses. Usually used in plumbing systems, construction, industry or buildings, etc. The pipe clamp usually has a fixed pad and an adjustable pad. They are also used to apply a high or even uniform tightening force around the pipe, thereby minimizing leakage. The pipe clamp can absorb shock, suppress vibration, and reduce noise in the pipeline system. The pipe clamp is made of various materials, such as mild steel, stainless steel, carbon steel, PVC, Poly, etc.

8. Plug

The pipe plug is designed to be inserted into the end of the pipe, mainly to block one end of the pipe, so that the flow is completely ended. Pipe plugs are a simple and cost-effective way to block pipelines. It also contains male threads for easy insertion and removal. These pipe plugs are usually plated with chromium or nickel to achieve an excellent finish and better corrosion resistance. Pipe plugs are mostly used in these areas includes hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems, etc.

9. Reducer

The reducer is a pipe fitting used for the connection of two different pipe diameters. The flow can be reduced from large to small by reducing the pipe size. There are usually two types of reducers, that is, concentric reducers and eccentric reducers. The shape of the concentric reducer is like a cone, which gradually decreases around the pipe. The other is an eccentric reducer. One edge of the eccentric reducer is parallel to the connecting pipe, so it cannot accumulate air.

10. Tee

Pipe tees are widely used as pipe fittings. Tees are T-shaped pipe fitting, which has an inlet and two outlets. The outlets are presented as 90° with the connection of the mainline. It can also be used to combine flow from two inlets to one outlet. Pipe tees also offer different materials and different sizes. According to the classification of pipe diameter, there can be divided into two types. The first type is called equal tee, the diameter of the main pipe and branch pipes have the same size. The other is called unequal tee, the diameter of its branch pipe is smaller than that of the main pipe.

11. Unions

The shape of a union is a three-dimensional polygonal design, and the inner layer is engraved with threads. The connection method is a fixed joint and a female joint. The two ends are connected with the corresponding pipe threads, and the middle is closed by a PVC pad or rubber. It is mainly used to connect matching hardware fittings and can be installed in various pipe connections. Because the union has the advantages of convenient installation and disassembly, it is widely used in civil construction, plumbing engineering, automobile manufacturing, and other industries.


Our MecHero has a wide range of pipe fittings parts. If you have any questions, please call our experts at 011-7001 7687. We look forward to working with you to help you solve any problems on the pipe fittings.

*Photos above only for illustration

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