A vacuum pump is a device that uses mechanical and physical means to evacuate the gas in a sealed container to achieve a vacuum state. The vacuum pump is mainly used for pumping and compressing in a low-pressure environment and discharges the gas under atmospheric pressure. The working principle of a vacuum pump is a device that generates and maintains a vacuum in a closed environment. The volume of the vacuum pump is generally relatively large because it needs to be used to extract a huge volume of gas. Many types of industries require vacuum technology, so vacuum pumps can be applied to various manufacturing industries, such as the chemical industry, food industry, packaging industry, etc. In the article below, you will understand the working principle, characteristics of vacuum pumps and which types of vacuum pumps are suitable for your industry.
Types of Vacuum pump
The basic working principle of vacuum pumps is the same. Pumping air inside the container to achieve the vacuum result. However, there are still different types of pumps on the market, in order to operate well in each different pressure range. Some main types of vacuum pumps are listed below.
Rotary vane vacuum pumps
The rotary vane vacuum pump is a low-cost and high-function vacuum pump with a compact structure and small volume. The rotary vane vacuum pump can compress air to generate suction to absorb the gas in the container. The rotor installed in the rotary vane vacuum pump is tangent to the fixed surface of the stator. The two rotary vanes rotate in the rotor slot and will touch the inner wall of the stator, thus becoming a rotary variable volume vacuum pump. Generally, the gap between the rotary vane and the pump cavity of the rotary vane vacuum pump is sealed with oil. In addition, oil can also play a lubricating effect. This type of vacuum pump is particularly useful for high-boiling solvents.
Diaphragm vacuum pumps
The characteristic of the diaphragm vacuum pump is that it uses dry compression technology, so there is no need to use oil or water for lubrication purposes. At the same time, it won’t cause environmental pollution. Diaphragm vacuum pumps have high working efficiency and long durability. Diaphragm vacuum pumps have strong resistance to chemical corrosion which can be used for products with strong acid, alkali, or corrosiveness, and are widely used in the chemical research industry. Besides, this type of pump is also suitable for the medical industry, pharmaceutical industry, food processing industry, and other industries that require continuous work.
Liquid ring vacuum pumps
The liquid ring vacuum pump is mainly a pump that uses liquid as a working medium and works by centrifugal liquid on the pump wall. This liquid creates a liquid ring that can maintain the airtightness of the pump. Except to use water as the medium, sulfuric acid or oil can also be used as the working medium. Liquid ring vacuum pumps can be divided into single-stage and multi-stage. The main difference is that their impeller stages are different. The impeller of a single-stage vacuum pump rotates once, and the gas undergoes one-time suction and discharge. When the impeller of a two-stage vacuum pump rotates once, it will experience two times suction and discharge of gas. Since the liquid ring vacuum pump uses isothermal compression to compress the gas, it is suitable for explosive products, such as oil refineries, breweries, power plants, and other industries.
Scroll vacuum pumps
Scroll vacuum pumps use two spiral scrolls to compress liquids or gases. Most of them are used in places that require a high requirement of cleanliness and dryness, such as laboratories. There are two scrolls inside the scroll vacuum pump, one is fixed, and the other is orbiting. The orbiting scroll will scroll along with the orbit, thereby sucking in gas. The scroll vacuum pump is very quiet in operation and does not require any oil to operate, so the gas transported by the pump will not be contaminated.
Turbomolecular vacuum pumps
The turbomolecular vacuum pump is a vacuum pump that uses a high-speed rotating impeller to operate. Its working principle is that when a gas particle is hit on a solid surface (turbine blade), it will move in a specific direction (outlet), and then the gas will be pumped out by the backing pump. Turbomolecular vacuum pumps do not require oil to operate as well. However, its price is more expensive than ordinary vacuum pumps and the maintenance cost is also higher. Turbomolecular vacuum pumps are often used in research laboratories, semiconductors, and chemical industries.
The main features of vacuum pumps are:
(1) The pumping speed will be faster in the larger space.
(2) The structure of the rotor in the vacuum pump is compact and symmetrical, so it can run smoothly and at a higher speed.
(3) The vacuum pump does not need to use oil for lubrication or sealing, so the use of a vacuum pump can reduce pollution.
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